ABC of Safety in the Biological Sciences




This includes organisms, viruses and material which offers special hazards to workers in the biological sciences and for which special accommodation and conditions for containment must be provided for by law in most countries of the world.

The human pathogens and hazardous material in this category are:

  • Bartonella spp.
  • Brucella spp.
  • Clostridium otulinum.
  • Francisella tularensis.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other species of pathogenic mycobacterium.
  • Pseudomonas mallei.
  • Pseudomonas pseudomallei.
  • Salmonella paratyphi A.
  • Salmonella typhi.
  • Yersinia pestis.
  • Blastomyces dermatitidis.
  • Coccidioides immitis.
  • Cryptococcus neoformans.
  • Histoplasma capsulatum and related species.
  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
  • Chlamydia psittaci.
  • Coxiella burneti and other pathogenic rickettsiae.
  • Legionella pneumophila.
  • Arboviruses except Semlike Forest, Uganda S, Langate and Yellow Fever.
  • 17D vaccine strain and Sindbis viruses.
    • All sputum and other material that may contain tubercle bacilli, even if examination for them has not been required, must be processed in an exhaust protective cabinet in Category B1 accommodation.
    • Materials and reagents known to contain Hepatitis B virus. Material known to contain Hepatitis B surface antigen when it is deliberately brought into a laboratory as test material or as a control.
    • Brain tissue and spinal cord material from patients with Creutzfeldt­Jakob disease and multiple sclerosis when they are subjected to homogenisation or disruption for biochemical or research purposes.

All specimens that contain or are suspected of containing organisms, viruses and materials in Category B1 must be labelled `Danger of Infection' on both the specimen container and the request form by the person requesting the investigation.

Miller, B.M. et al. (1986)
Laboratory Safety: Principles and Practices.
American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, U.S.A.



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